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!Read Ebook ⚧ Enemy on the Euphrates ⛅ Between JulyAnd February , In The Territory Known As Mesopotamia Now The Modern State Of Iraq An Arab Uprising Came Perilously Close To Inflicting A Shattering Defeat Upon The British Empire A Huge Peasant Army Surrounded And Besieged British Garrisons With Sand Bagged Entrenchments British Columns And Armoured Trains Were Ambushed And Destroyed And Well Armed British Gunboats Were Sunk Or CapturedThe Quest For Oil Was Central To Britain S Middle East Policy During The First World War And Was One Of The Principal Reasons For Its Continuing Occupation Of Iraq However, With Around , Arabs In Arms At One Stage Of The Conflict, The British Were Very Nearly Driven Out Only A Massive Infusion Of Indian Troops And The Widespread Use Of Aircraft Prevented A Total Rout Enemy On The Euphrates Is The Definitive Account Of The First British Occupation Of Iraq And The Revolt Against It InUsing A Wealth Of Primary Sources, Ian Rutledge Brings Central Players Such As Winston Churchill, Arnold Wilson, TE Lawrence, Gertrude Bell And Sir Mark Sykes Vividly To Life In This Gripping Account I chanced upon mention of this book while I was reading an article by Robert Fisk in The Independent discussing the situation in Syria and Iraq in early June 2014.Fisk observed Rutledge has researched Britain s concern about Shia power in southern Iraq where Basra s oil lies material with acute relevance to the crisis now tearing Iraq to pieces As the activities of ISIS have escalated and their rule has spread throughout Syria and Iraq a thorough understanding of the background to the situation in the region sheds vital light on current events.Rutledge s book provides an excellent history of the region in the aftermath of the Sykes Picot agreement at two levels first of all he gives a thorough narrative of the causes and the course of the Arab Revolt against the British rule in Iraq in 1920 As he points out Indeed, the insurrection in Iraq of 1920, measured in enemy combatant numbers, was the most serious armed uprising against British rule in the twentieth century At the height of the rebellion the British estimated that around 131,000 Arabs were in arms against them Secondly, he provides a great deal of detail about the patchwork of tribal and religious groupings and loyalties that covered the region at the time, many of which persist to this day He spends considerable effort explaining the motivations and aims of the insurrection, and makes it clear that it was well organized and well led and its successes were a deep cause of embarrassment to Britain, the world superpower of the day.Rutledge s style is accessible and incisive without ever stooping to sensationalism His grasp and analysis of the complexities of the situation is excellent I would recommend this book for anyone interested in the Middle East or simply in the limits and dangers of applying overwhelming military power to situations that call for a political solution. I must confess to having read this book in error.I bought it, unseen, to further my knowledge about the First World War Mesopotamian campaign It does cover it, but only in passing Instead, it tells an equally compelling story one of British military and diplomatic bungling and duplicity in modern day Iraq As an example of how not to win the hearts and minds of host communities, it would be hard to beat and all in the quest for oilfelds that never returned on their early potential Read it and weep. A good survey that contextualizes events in the Near East and British Arab relations from the beginning of the 20th century to the end of the First World War.