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A large thank you goes out to my friend, Brenda, who has agreed to jointly read and review this book, in hopes that we might stir up some discussion on the matters addressed Her review can be found at Cohen uses this book as a much needed soap box to highlight a case that made its way to the US Supreme Court, Buck v Bell, and whose analysis was so jaded that it has found its way on a list of the Court s worst decisions of all time Not only were some of the greatest minds of time involved in the ruling, Louis Brandeis, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and William Taft, but the Court stood behind Holmes written decision almost unanimously However, Cohen chooses not only to focus on the Supreme Court ruling, which explored the eugenic sterilisation movement in America as well as sanctioning the Virginia law as constitutional , but the journey the law took from its inception in the legislature and selection of a young Carrie Buck to be the test subject Carrie Buck was a young woman, eighteen by the time the case made its way to the US Supreme Court, who was adopted as a child She attended school for a few years before she was pulled out to work, as determined by her adoptive parents At the age of seventeen, she fell pregnant and was committed to an institution for epileptics and the feebleminded, seemingly because she possessed loose morals and was deemed a woman whose brain was oversexed At the time, the early 1920s, this was entirely appropriate and Carrie was forced to abide by the stringent rules set upon her by the State of Virginia Around this time, as the eugenics movement in the United States was heating up, Virginia sought to pass a law to bring about eugenic sterilisation, which would not only ensure that the state s residents were of the highest calibre, but also ensure those who were less than adequate could not reproduce and sully the gene pool their views, not mine While other states were having similar laws overturned by the courts as unconstitutional, Virginia sought to test their legislative initiative all the way to the Supreme Court, using Carrie Buck and her situation as the ideal set of facts From there, it was a process stacked against Buck, offering her no hope of personal victory Doctors who manipulated facts and forced her to undergo mental testing for which she was not adequately prepared, an assigned lawyer who sought to defend her by offering flimsy arguments that would not pass muster in any court of law, as well as a set of legal and medical minds buoyed by a movement that tried to press for the purest of the race to continue, leaving those of a lesser ability to be subjugated to the role of subservient By the time the case made its way to the nine justices of the US Supreme Court, the legal circus was in full swing and Buck had no chance Once Justice Holmes got his hands on the right to pen a decision, he chose not even to explore the validity of the arguments made and simply rubber stamped the law, adding one of the most perverse comments ever attributed to a decision of the US Supreme Court three generations of imbeciles are enough Cohen dissects that inane comment throughout the book and shows how Buck was truly a whipping boy for the movement and stood no chance at having her rights upheld, personal and or constitutional.While the story of Buck would be enough to pull on the heartstrings of any warm blooded reader, Cohen goes further, examining the backstories of the key actors, as well as the eugenics movement in America The medical and legal communities filled their professional journals with articles on the subject, coming out on either side, which led to a mainstream propaganda attack, which propped up the idea of eugenics in books, pamphlets, and even a Hollywood movie, which sought to explore what letting a feebleminded baby grow up might yield a mentally deficient killer, of course which I say, tongue in cheek This eugenics movement was so well established that the likes of Dr Josef Mengele was surely salivating at the chance to implement it in Germany Cohen does mention that some of the early eugenic ideas of the Nazis are attributed directly to the American movement, as lauded in German medical and propaganda materials in the early 1920s Deplorable, perhaps, but also poignant as the world tosses out how atrocious the Nazis were in their Megele ian experiments We need only look to the Land of the Free to see how enslaved segments of its population were at the time Worry not, when sober thinking returned, America scrapped its eugenics movement, seeking to sweep it under the rug and point to Germany s atrocities, as if the left hand s antics would never be remembered Cohen makes it much harder to reach for that first stone now, though what is even astonishing is that this case, this entire narrative, is not better known America read anyone with a general knowledge of human and civil rights is not able to toss out Buck v Bell as a horrendous legal precedent, as we do Dred Scott, for reasons that baffle Cohen, as this was a significant case with a fiery line penned by Justice Holmes Alas, the annals of poorly supported decisions made by the US Supreme Court must have missed this, their golden child example It is that shameful sleight of hand that is perhaps worst of all Cohen does a masterful job at presenting this book It is than simply Carrie Buck and how she was forced into being sterilised, thereby forcing her not to have any children after her first It is also than a simple analysis of the criteria surrounding feeblemindedness in America, or the push for eugenics, which would rid the country of the lesser folk from procreating It is even about than forced sterilisation, which is a horrid subject in and of itself Cohen explores all the pieces of the movement, its actors, and detractors, as well as using the Buck narrative to explore how America failed its citizenry and a US Supreme Court disregarded its fundamental law, the Constitution, to protect those who needed it the most With significant research, Cohen hones in on many of those who played a role, some of whom will surprise the attentive reader His narrative is crisp and propels the story forward, as abysmal as the content might be It also pulls no punches in drawing significant connections between the American eugenics movement and the influence it played on Nazi Germany s decision to adopt similar ideals The blood is right there on the hands of the influential and the reader cannot deny its existence No matter how the reader feels about eugenics and reproductive rights, the book opens eyes, leaves mouths agape, and paves the way for many intellectual or gut arguments I can only hope readers will engage in this, both on public forums like GoodReads, and in their own way This is not a topic to read about, nod, and move along It is a discussion to be had Are you willing to join in Kudos, Mr Cohen for this spectacular piece The title is so open ended, I am left to wonder if you reference Holmes comment or the list of those who failed Buck throughout the ordeal.Like hate the review An ever growing collection of others appears at This book takes a long look at the American eugenics movement and the key players in it through the story of how Carrie Buck, a young girl from Virginia, became the first in that state to be sterilized for being feeble minded after losing a Supreme Court Battle The Good I didn t know a lot about the eugenics movement I knew that it existed and people had been sterilized, immigration laws changed, etc I thought the book did a good job of capturing attitudes of the people involved The inclusion of what was then cutting edge genetics research was both horrifying and fascinating Horrifying and fascinating could probably describe most of the book, actually I learned some things, while also being continually disturbed over humanity.My Complaints The organization of this book is a disaster I didn t notice it right away, but after a while things start to repeat, multiple times How many times did he mention that Carrie could not have a mental age of nine because she d reached the sixth grade I lost count There were lots of details that were mentioned over and over as the stories of the people being profiled in the book intersected The story of how the colony came to be on the site that it was on was in there at least twice, for example, for no apparent reason The fact that Carrie was not actually an imbecile but a moron was put out there maybe twice a chapter It really got on my nerves.The other thing I would ve liked of is what happened with eugenics after the decision The sort of immediate aftermath and statistics about sterilizations were interesting insofar as giving the scope of what happened as a result of the decision and knowing the terrible reality that many of the sterilized 1 weren t actually intellectually disabled and 2 had no idea what was being done to them Towards the end of the conclusion, Cohen put something in there about Buck v Bell still standing as of 2001 but he never definitively said, This ruling still stands today or This ruling doesn t stand today because x I feel like he missed an opportunity to nail his argument down I mean, I looked it up and Buck v Bell has never been overturned, so it seems like there was a gaping opportunity for Cohen to comment on that that, and it just zoomed on by.All in all, if you, like me, didn t know a lot about how the eugenics movement came to be a thing that the supreme court eventually ruled on and you have a decent tolerance for an author repeating things to you as if you have a short term memory problem, this may be a fairly interesting read. Recently I ve come to the conclusion,after spending the last couple of years reading books about American history and politics, that most of what I was taught in school seems to be propaganda a white washed, sanitized and just general rewriting of United States history This book, Imbeciles The Supreme Court, American Eugenics and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck taught me about a movement which began early in the 20th century which targeted poor white people mainly women for enforced sterilization to improve the genetic quality of the population whatever THAT means I had heard of eugenics and read a fictionalized account of the practice of sterilizing a person against her will and without her knowledge Necessary Lies by Dianne Chamberlain but after reading this book, I realized just how little I actually knew about this movement.To begin, on May 2, 2002 on the 75th anniversary of the Supreme Court ruling in Buck v Bell Governor Mark Warner of Virginia issued an apology for the state s participation in eugenics 7,450 people were sterilized between 1927 1979 in Virginia a state which sterilized people than any other state besides California Adam Cohen, the author of this book, moves forward and backward through history, providing background information regarding what the social, political and economic climate was during the formation of the eugenics movement and he couples the historical context with the facts surrounding this one young woman, Carrie Buck and what her case means in a broader sense To understand what happened to Carrie Buck to understand HOW Carrie Buck could be ordered by the Supreme Court to undergo sterilization Mr Cohen explains what was happening in the United States in the early 1920s The early 20th century was characterized by an explosion of new immigrants The United States was in the process of changing from a rural farming society to an industrial urban society The explosion of new immigrants was transforming the ethnic and religious makeup of America, leading to a feeling of angst among the middle and upper classes Sound familiar In England, at about this time, some followers of Charles Darwin and his ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest, usurped those ideas to come up with a plan to deal with the people they considered unfit or undesirable in society Charles Darwin did NOT support the eugenics movement, by the way Also at this time, the movement was encouraged by work being done by Gregor Mendel, who with his experiments with his famous pea plants was making important discoveries on the role of heredity The eugenics movement picked up steam in the United States and various states began passing laws forcing the institutionalization of people referred to as feebleminded This forced institutionalization began with the state of Indiana in 1907, and it was just the first step, according to prominent eugenicists, in improving the human stock And here is where the case of Carrie Buck becomes very important.Three categories had been devised to determine whether people should be institutionalized and then for their protection and the protection of society, should be sterilized a person would be determined to be either 1 an idiot, 2 an imbecile or 3 a moron I know, this sounds ridiculous what do these terms even mean These categories were vaguely defined and honestly, I couldn t make sense of any of them I don t know if these were considered legal terms or psychological terms but the people who were ultimately classified as such were any people who behaved in a way that offended the sensibilities of the middle or upper classes people with epilepsy, alcoholism or drug addiction, anyone who exhibited signs of criminality and women who seemed to be uncharacteristically interested in sex.Carrie Buck, a resident of Charlottesville, Virginia, was born in 1906 and her family situation was a bit complicated.Carrie s mother found it impossible to care for her daughters after her husband deserted the family Carrie s mother was then placed in the Virginia Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded and Carrie was placed in the care of a foster family named Dobbs John Dobbs was a police officer and he and his wife had one daughter who was slightly older than Carrie The Dobbs family took Carrie in as a toddler and although they left her enrolled in school until the 6th grade, they treated her mainly as a servant not a daughter When Carrie was removed from school, they began to loan her out to work for neighbors so that she might contribute monetarily to the household It was in 1924 that Carrie became pregnant coincidentally after the extended visit of a Dobbs nephew, Clarence Garland In a nutshell, the Dobbs knew Carrie s pregnancy would invite gossip among the neighbors and a stigma would be attached to the family They had Carrie declared feebleminded and labeled an imbecile They used her pregnancy as proof for this classification After all, hadn t her pregnancy resulted because of her excessive interest in sex Carrie was sent to join the Colony of Epileptics and Feebleminded and it is here that she unfortunately caught the attention of Dr Albert Priddy, the director of the colony, who was incidentally looking for a subject to use as a test case in court for forced sterilization In hearing after hearing, Carrie had no one who looked out for her interests To say her counsel was ineffective would be a compliment Her counsel raised no objection and had nothing to say whatsoever Finally, the case came before the Supreme Court and that is where this travesty was completed In an 8 1 decision, the Court ruled that Carrie Buck would have to submit to forced sterilization Justice William Howard Taft former president of the U.S , Louis Brandeis a SUPPOSED progressive and of course, the esteemed Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr voted in favor of forced sterilization In his opinion, Justice Holmes wrote that three generations of imbeciles are enough and that the nation must sterilize those who sap the strength of the state Only one Justice dissented Pierce Butler, who wrote no dissenting opinion , although it is assumed he disagreed based on his religious beliefs Carrie Buck was ultimately sterilized although this procedure was never explained to her She believed that she had had an appendectomy Years later, after having been married and widowed twice and having lived a quiet and productive life in Virginia, she was told she had been sterilized This news filled her with anger and sadness which she carried the rest of her life The daughter she had given birth to as a young woman, had been raised by the Dobbs and had died at the age of 8 from a stomach infection Carrie had always wanted to have a couple of children and had never understood why it hadn t happened One thing regarding Carrie her intelligence was found to be in the normal range she had NOT been feebleminded OR an imbecile she had been a pawn in a horrendous game.I was shocked, horrified and terribly saddened by this book And if it s a possibility, I was even MORE shocked to learn that Buck v Bell has never been overturned It s very popular these days for people to talk a lot about American Exceptionalism and I agree the United States and our citizens have achieved much to be proud of and that has contributed to the good of all mankind But I also believe that we should never forget that we have engaged in horrific acts of cruelty and oppression against the powerless and most vulnerable people as well So instead of trying to whitewash these events from our history, we should acknowledge them so that we will never repeat them That Buck v Bell has never been overturned is worrisome to me Scientists are now working on the Human Genome Project in which the goal is to map every human gene What roads could this project lead us down Perhaps once again,science will be twisted to quell the angst felt now over the changing face of our population Perhaps I or my children or perhaps you or your children will be found to possess a gene which makes us undesirable or unfit I highly recommend this book to everyone The cast of characters is indeed large and Mr Cohen is, at times, repetitive but this book is SO worth reading And one thing during the Nuremberg Trials, the Nazi war criminals used the American Eugenics movement as a defense of the atrocities they had committed They had used the eugenics movement when designing their solution to the Jewish problem Think about that. This book examines the eugenics movement in the United States and the Supreme Court s ruling in Bell v Buck, which allowed for the sterilization of so called undesirables As the author notes, this ruling has not been overturned to this day But what is truly amazing is that the author turns a fascinating topic into a tedious recitation of unrelated biographical details of the principle actors involved in this case Yet, the author provides little contextualization of the American eugenics movement offering no explanation for why eugenics became so popular in the late 1800s or why its popularity waned in the early 1900s only to resurge again in the 1920s The study also fails to explore the gendered dimensions of eugenics the fact that women, not men, were overwhelmingly targeted for sterilization The book does succeed in offering very detailed readings of many of the primary texts but this strength is often lost because of the endless repetition of unnecessary biographical information and other detours from the main subject. Since starting law school and even before that , I have been obsessed with constitutional law and the Supreme Court I think it is fascinating to read their rulings, see how cases build upon each other, and to read about individual justices and how their personalities can shape a SCOTUS era This last year, I learned about Buck v Bell 1927SCOTUS found constitutional a Virginia law that allowed imbeciles to be sterilized Why Well, the story is interesting, complex, horrifying, and was a role model for Nazi Germany.In a nutshell, eugenics was all the rage There was a faction of scientists I use that term loosely because they were not real empirical research scientists who believed that feeblemindedess was hereditary That unwed mothers were feebleminded, that criminality was passed in genes, and that we had to prevent these people from reproducing for the betterment of society What it boiled down to what that poor, white people were discriminated against, Black people were not included in this group as much mainly because other efforts were ongoing to oppress them That is another story for another day So, Virginia passed a law and created a test case to go to SCOTUS, and they chose feebleminded Carrie Buck But what the author brings to light is that than just an injustice was done it was a collusion among rich, privileged, white men to blatantly make up facts and lie to the court in order to get their way It is atrocious It is a disgrace to the legal system.The author tells the story of the major players Strode, the lawyer for the state Dr Priddy, the original defendant as the director of the colony for the feebleminded and epileptic Laughlin, eugenics enthusiast Justice Holmes, author of the majority opinion and Buck herself.I was intrigued by all of the players, but particularly by Holmes He is often venerated in the legal world, especially with his work on free speech But he got this decision wrong He is famously quoted as saying, three generations of imbeciles is enough My biggest complaint of the book is that parts were very repetitive And not just rehashing the same information, but the author seemed to have cut and pasted some sentences in multiple locations Also, the conclusion did not flow at all and felt like he wrote it as a stand alone summary and then just threw it into the back of the book.Overall though, this was a brilliant look into one of our country s darkest Supreme Court decisions A decision, by the way, which has never been overruled and is still good law. The nation must sterilize those who sap the strength of the State to prevent our being swamped with incompetence Oliver Wendall Holmes Professing to be wise, they became fools Romans 1 22Imbecile is the story of the Supreme Court case of Buck vs Bell, which allowed sterilization of the unfit or feebleminded in the name of the eugenics movement Yes, this was in the United States beginning in the 1920s and, for some states, staying on the books until 1979 Some of the most highly respected minds of the time were associated with either this case or the movement Louis Brandeis, Oliver Wendall Holmes, William Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Margaret Sanger, John D Rockefeller, Alexander Graham Bell It wasn t just a science craze It had a national magazine it was supported by social reformers and women s clubs clergy preached it from the pulpit Hollywood even cashed in with a horror movie Feebleminded and defective were the blanket terms most often thrown around, and left to judges and social workers of the white upperclass to define They could mean anything from having a low IQ, to women having an abnormal interest in sex, to just being too poor, and basically comes down to the powerless against the powerful It is believed the Nazi party based their extermination pograms on the American eugenic movement, with Buck vs Bell being cited during the Nuremberg trials By this time in the book I am shocked, speechless, and disgusted But wait, there s Various scientists, researchers, and lawyers set the groundwork for this case beginning in 1921 Step one was the immigration acts of 1921 and 1924, which drastically limited the number of eastern and Southern European immigrants as well as Jews Statistics state that in 1920 190,000 Jews immigrated to America compared to 7,000 in 1926, sealing the fate of many running from Nazi terror Later research proves that the most famous of those affected by this law was the Frank family Step two was an 1895 law forbidding various unworthy people from marrying Step three entailed the segregation of undesirables in institutions during the childbearing years, some men, but mostly young women, who all viewed as promiscuous Finally, when all previous steps were deemed ineffective or expensive, there came step four sterilization, first adopted, I am ashamed to say, by my home state, IN When VA adopted the bill, they decided to take it all the way to the US Supreme Court to make sure it was constitutional Enter Carrie Bell She was deemed the perfect test case for the following reasons she had only been institutionalized for a few months she was born into an impoverished family where the mother had already been sentenced as feebleminded she had a baby out of wedlock and the invalid intelligence test results stated she was an imbecile She was given no chance to defend herself and nothing was explained to her Does anyone else find it intolerable that the medically accepted labels for Carrie and her ilk were idiot , moron and imbecile Sickening Oliver Wendall Holmes shows to be pompous windbag, a Boston brahmin who believed in an unspoken caste system in the United States He made his career by climbing the shoulders of others in power, asking favors when necessary Finally Buck vs Bell goes to trial and is appealed to the US Supreme Court simply to test a theory that 15 million people must be sterilized to cull the feebleminded from procreating leading to a master race not in Germany in the 1940s, but the USA in the 1920s As the Justices are introduced I already know Carrie doesn t stand a chance There is Holmes, whom we ve already discussed, as well as two anti semites, an already well known Eugenicist, and two social Darwinists That s who enforced our Constitution, folks Not surprisingly, eight of the nine voted to uphold the original mVirginia decision for Carrie s sterilization.Thanks go out to my friend, Matt, for doing a group read with me I can t find his review email address to add to this, but please look him up and add your thoughts. A deeply unsettling and ominously relevant review of the American eugenics movement, an all too often forgotten and ugly injustice which I have to confess I had little idea of the scope of before reading this book While the actual discussion of the Supreme Court decision itself seemed a little under researched, Cohen does a good job at outlining the sweep of this cause through the individual stories of the people involved in this groundbreaking case Further, Cohen does excellent work in placing the movement and Buck v Bell in particular in the context of the institutional failures of civil society to protect individual rights and to safeguard the powerless against the interests of the powerful.For a chapter of history that often goes unread, there is a lot in this book that provides a new perspective on events of our time, whether in the explicit connection Cohen makes about state power as applied to heredity in the age of CRISPR, the troublingly familiar stories of ugly reactions of elites to demographic change in America, or just in the somewhat understated reminders of the importance of vigorous, skilled, well funded public defenders and the need to recognize that a society is only as morally upright as its treatment of those it despises.Well worth your time. If you are unaware that the Supreme Court in 1927 upheld the constitutionality of sterilizing persons the government deemed unfit and the way this power was used to sterilize almost exclusively poor women and men, often without their knowledge, often with ridiculous evidence of their immorality or imbecility then read this book Or read stephen Jay Gould s Mismeasure of Man to understand how such wrong headed science was believed and used to create horrific public policy because it reinforced racist elitist ideas and fears Scientists are, after al, products of their culture and human I teach US History in high school and spend a great deal of time on Buck vs Bell and the impact in general of the eugenics movement on immigration policy and of course the horrific sterilizations I was disappointed this book added little to my knowledge EXCEPT the awesome parts about Oliver Wendell Holmes I of course was familiar with his three generations of imbeciles is enough majority opinion, but had no idea he had entertained the necessity of infanticide that he upheld disenfranchising black voters and basically continuation of slavery in the south The vehement racism and contempt for the poor and lesser educated is dripping in his writings It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind Often the writing is stiff and formulaic Every person is introduced with a little background info, and then the Was born in In To Into a family from And way too much detail about their family background without really tying it in to show why this is relevant sounds like I did all this research I just want to make sure it doesn t go to waste Much of the information in this book has been presented in many previous books and adds little interpretation or insight that is new I was about ready to put the book aside when I got to the terrific parts about OWH this was new and fascinating info Cohen is at his best when he is explaining court cases and explaining the decisions I gave the book four stars only because I hope Cohen will reach a new audience who is unfamiliar with the heartbreaking details surrounding Carrie Buck as well as thousands of others sterilized against their will My students are usually shocked to learn how much the Nazis were inspired by our eugenics movement Mostly it is important to understand how science is a culturally embedded activity and scientists are human. {FREE PDF} ï Imbeciles ó One Of America S Great Miscarriages Of Justice, The Supreme Court S Infamous Buck V Bell Ruling Made Government Sterilization Of Undesirable Citizens The Law Of The Land New York Times Bestselling Author Adam Cohen Tells The Story In Imbeciles Of One Of The Darkest Moments In The American Legal Tradition The Supreme Court S Decision To Champion Eugenic Sterilization For The Greater Good Of The Country In , When The Nation Was Caught Up In Eugenic Fervor, The Justices Allowed Virginia To Sterilize Carrie Buck, A Perfectly Normal Young Woman, For Being An Imbecile It Is A Story With Many Villains, From The Superintendent Of The Dickensian Virginia Colony For Epileptics And Feebleminded Who Chose Carrie For Sterilization To The Former Missouri Agriculture Professor And Nazi Sympathizer Who Was The Nation S Leading Advocate For Eugenic Sterilization But The Most Troubling Actors Of All Were The Eight Supreme Court Justices Who Were In The Majority Including William Howard Taft, The Former President Louis Brandeis, The Legendary Progressive And Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr America S Most Esteemed Justice, Who Wrote The Decision Urging The Nation To Embark On A Program Of Mass Eugenic SterilizationExposing This Tremendous Injustice Which Led To The Sterilization Of , Americans Imbeciles Overturns Cherished Myths And Reappraises Heroic Figures In Its Relentless Pursuit Of The Truth With The Precision Of A Legal Brief And The Passion Of A Front Page Expos , Cohen S Imbeciles Is An Unquestionable Triumph Of American Legal And Social History, An Ardent Accusation Against These Acclaimed Men And Our Own Optimistic Faith In Progress From The Hardcover Edition Eye opening and at times scary book about of the rise of eugenics in America at the beginning of the 20th century It s never a good thing when Nazi Germany patterns their own sterilization program after those in United States.After several setbacks in the courts, eugenic supporters in Virginia crafted a law that they hoped would set the standard and survive legal challenges all the way to the Supreme Court They basically used Carrie Buck as their test subject, ordering her sterilization and then using dubious science and at times outright fabrication to push the case through the court system Unfortunately for Carrie, eugenics was all the rage at the time and had many prominent adherents including former president Teddy Roosevelt and Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr The law was upheld by the Supreme Court.Of course the obvious and scary question is who do you sterilize and who decides A favorite term was the feeble minded What defined feeble mindedness Good question Depends on who you talk to, anyone from the mentally challenged, epileptic, criminals, alcoholics, dependents the poor , women considered to be excessively interested in sex, the blind and the deaf Initially the sterilizations ran about 50 50 male female but after a few years the number of women sterilized increased to 67% The practice was used on so many poor white southern women that the procedure earned the nickname Mississippi appendectomy Called that because Carrie Buck was told she was undergoing an appendectomy not sterilization In fact she never realized what had been done to her until much later in life after she had been married twice When told of the procedure she and her current husband both broke down and cried, they had been trying to become pregnant for years not knowing that Carrie was unable to bear children.Plenty of information here but I wasn t real fond of the way it was structured, it jumped around quite a bit and spent way too much time on the background of Justice Holmes.6 10